Mayabeque Province was created from the former La Habana Province, whose creation was approved by the Cuban National Assembly on August 1st, 2010, the other was Artemisa Province.
In this territory is located the first place where the Village of San Cristóbal de La Habana was found in 1514. It was transferred to the heights of the Casiguagua River (Almendares at present). Finally, it was moved to the western shore of Carenas Port (Bay of Havana). Even though there are contradictions in that respect, it is believed that one of the most probable places is the center of the old Hato de San Pedro de Mayabeque.
From this southern site, Hernán Cortés left for the conquest of Mexico; and from the same site there were expeditions to Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Tierra Firme, that is, to Yucatan, Mexico and Veracruz, not to mention Central and South America.
The first population established in the territory, which lasts until the present time, was Batabanó (Hato Mercedado in 1559), which served as the southern port of the town of Havana for maritime communication with the villas of the south and east of the country. In the 18th century were founded the villages of Quivicán (1700), Bejucal (1714) - both on the original route between Havana and Batabanó -, Güines (1735), Melena del Sur (1768) Jaruco (1768) and San Jose de las Lajas (1778). In the 19th century appeared Santa Cruz del Norte (1800), Nueva Paz (1802), Madruga (1803) and San Nicolás (1827). The growth of the town of Güines, carved by the Mayabeque River, was associated with the prosperity of the sugar industry. Here it was built the first sugar mill moved by hydraulic power: the Ingenio Alejandria, whose ruins are now National Monument. In 1837, there were built the first railroad in Cuba and Latin America between Havana and Bejucal, and up to Guines in 1839, six years before of its construction in the metropolis. The first railroad station built in Cuba and Latin America, located in Bejucal, is still operational, and there is a Museum now.