Mayabeque province is located in the western and narrowest region  of the island of Cuba next to the capital of the country, between 22 ° 34 ', 23 ° 12' North latitude and 82 ° 28 ', 81 ° 40' West longitude. It limits to the North with the Havana province and the Strait of Florida, to the South with the Gulf of Batabanó, to the East with Matanzas province and to the West with the Artemisa province.

It is the second smallest province of the country in terms of the total area,  3 743,81 km².  Its capital city, San José de las Lajas, is the smallest capital city of the island. It is characterized by the Habana-Matanzas Plain,   where there are located the Southern Plain of Habana-Matanzas and the Heights of Bejucal and Madruga, belonging  to the Heights of Bejucal Madruga Coliseo, where there is the culminating point of the province. The high and rocky north coast,  is bordered by a range of lower elevations that bring great beauty to the landscape. The best known is the Bacunayagua river  crossed by the bridge of the same name and the highest in all of Cuba, linking Mayabeque with the neighboring province of Matanzas. The south coast is low and marshy with mangrove areas.